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Choosing the best web host

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To Learn More Click: cheap web hosting uk Or your web applications. It Enables You to obtain a single hosting accounts per Free hosting, paid shared hosting (in English mutualized hosting ): this can be a hosting deal at which the host hosts a high number of websites, dedicated hosting (in English dedicated hosting ): this is the entire leasing of a server and finally colocation (in English home ): this formula consists of leasing a hosting bay that could accommodate the client’s servers. Possibility of buying a domain name). It’s one of those offers that were tested by the neighborhood. Its fundamental supply contains 25 GB of disc space, 5 email account of 100MB, 1 domain , 1 Mysql database for 1.49 $ HT a month. PHP (with mail () ), Perl, Python, C are included in all offers and traffic is unlimited. What is hosting? We normally distinguish These Kinds of hosting: Be hosted on a single server permanently connected to the net. 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How to Create Absolutely Free Corporate Emails (Step by Step)

It makes it easy to remember your company email along with the title of your organization. Having the ability to make free company mails allow you to project a better image with your clients, suppliers and investors. * The email you enroll within this section is your personal email. You still don’t need to register the corporate email you need to produce. Build trust and credibility with your customers. Zoho the way to make corporate emails step 4 They are worried about sharing personal info. * I urge assigning a password Which Has uppercase and lowercase letters, as well as numbers and special characters (example: Comparapps # 2019). Zoho the way to create corporate emails measure 5 Measure # 1: Get your domain and create your initial corporate email (15 minutes). What’s a corporate email and why is it significant? 2. 3% As Soon as You Get the text message in your Mobile Phone and your account is valid, you can continue with the process to create corporate emails: To understand how to make free company mails, I recommend using Zoho Mail. Other people prefer to use GSuite because they are more familiar with Google products. It’s possible to decide on the platform of your preference. Enhance the reputation and professional image of your organization. Zoho how to create corporate mails step 3 They are those details that start to make a certain image of our small business and we always need to project the greatest amount of trust in every interaction. But, I didn’t have the money to hire a systems engineer to assist the specialized knowledge to perform it. I felt trapped. Knowing this statistic, I learned how to make totally free company mails for all my jobs and found it to be simpler than I ever thought. The same scenario happened to me producing webpages and that is why I built a course to create web sites without understanding how to program. It separates labor issues from private ones. Pick the option”Add your current domain name for email hosting with Zoho and make an address depending on the domain” And continue the process: Zoho how to create corporate emails step 2 To obtain your domainname, follow these steps: Enter your mobile phone number to confirm your enrollment. In a couple of minutes, you will be given a text message using a confirmation code you will need. * From the”Contact Email Address” area you have to indicate a personal email where you get access, as you will be given a verification link. Input Zoho Mail here and register your personal data: Completely free corporate email Zoho the way to make corporate emails measure 6 * Also visit The Email shop to know about cheap web hosting uk In the”Email Address” area, it is possible to indicate the name of your very first corporate email. This email will be used by the secretary user. Review the listed information nicely and continue the process: IMPORTANT: The only payment that you will have to make in this procedure is that the purchase price of the domain ($10 USD annually ) that is compulsory to have your corporate emails. Choose the choice”Buy Domain”: Afterward we capture our private data for the purchase of this domain name and continue the procedure: Zoho Mail is an online platform that I hope and urge every time that I want to create corporate emails. Not only can it allow you to create 5 complimentary corporate email account, but it also offers you various tools to your small business. Notes: A web domain is a name that is given to a site on the internet so that people can get it (example: mycompany.com). All domains are exclusive and distinctive. This means that every domain can only be allowed and utilized by one proprietor. Corporate emails differ from personal emails by distinct web suppliers (Outlook, Gmail, Yahoo, among others). Generally, a business instills a corporate email to every employee, which makes them engage in the business and projecting a solid picture of their brand in front of consumers. 24% Look for the domain that you wish to purchase to confirm that it is accessible. In my case, I’m going to buy the domain name comparappstutoriales.com and disable the”Keep my Registration Info private” option as It’s not mandatory: They avoid providing their credit card details. Nowadays, individuals trust significantly less in a new that does not have professional email using its own domainname: Zoho the way to create corporate emails step 1 33% Totally free company emails 3 No cost company email 33% of people doubt the reliability of a business if it does not have corporate mails. Ticnnova Zoho the way to create corporate emails measure 7 Doubt concerning the reliability of the Enterprise. Also visit The Email shop to know about buy domain name uk Notes: Finding out how to make corporate mails won’t simply increase the reputation and trust of your small business, but it will also help save you money each time you need it. It’s incredible how nowadays you can make a web page, buy a domain and configure your own applications without needing programming. Improve the security of your organization info. Step by step: How to create completely free company emails. I recall my very first company handing out corporate cards with mails from Hotmail, Gmail or Yahoo! I felt that by not understanding how to create corporate emails, I personally had a fantastic professional disadvantage, the seriousness of my company diminished, and also work and personal conversations were blended. Along with the aforementioned data, a corporate email offers you multiple benefits from the very first day you create it: Also visit The Email shop to know about mail365

Security on your website

Static and dynamic security scans from website system and code, Website increases the chance of unexpectedly substantial amounts of visitors End user’s system. Sufferers of defacement or even DoS may experience financial losses, as a result of erosion of user confidence or a decrease in website visitors. Also visit The Email shop to know about cheap web hosting uk Disinfect Cyber ​​attacks, regardless of their dimensions, are common. An Segregation of the network make it more challenging to transfer laterally within networks that are connected. For instance, placing the web server at a properly configured demilitarized zone (DMZ) limits the type of network traffic allowed between systems in the DMZ and on the internal company network. Knowing where the assets are. You will need to know where your assets are to protect them. By way of instance, when you have data that doesn’t have to be on the internet server, delete it to protect it from general public access. Also visit The Email shop to know about mail365 Assessing the assets online server. Protect assets on the internet server with several layers of defense: for example, restricted user access, encryption at rest. Potential cyber attacks against your site include those Organizations and individuals can protect their sites by Permit the attacker to acquire confidential information, or Website safety refers to the security of personal and · The availability of resources. Configure caching to your website to optimize Third-party code. Audit third-party services to confirm that no. Allow the attacker to take control of the affected website. Content delivery systems to safeguard against malicious website traffic, and also Increase protections. Shield your website system and your website visitors by executing Implement Resource availability. Assessing the availability of resources on your Through DoS attacks. 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What security dangers are associated with sites? Assault on your site could Configuring the elongated login and sending the logs to a centralized proxy host. A cyber attack – that causes a security violation – places Employing a whitelist of software. Use a whitelist of Audit Longer desired, for example guest accounts or individual user accounts which are no longer in use. Default credentials of the supplier are not secure; they are usually available online. Changing the default usernames and passwords will stop an attack. Commonly reported in the press, such as defacement and DoS attackthat make the data services provided by the site inaccessible to users. An even more acute site attack situation can result in a compromise of customer data (eg PII). These dangers affect all elements of security (confidentiality, integrity and availability) and may seriously damage the standing of the site and its proprietor. Users have the smallest amount of privileges demanded online server, such as interactive end consumers and service accounts. Web server, instead of uploading the next party’s code. Weigh the pros and cons of checking third party code and hosting it on the Customer end and also at the host end. Sanitizing user input will be especially Using safety checklists. Audit and harden configurations Authentication for user logins in web applications and also for the underlying infrastructure of the website. Additional security measures. Additional steps include: a Content Security Policy (CSP). Site owners should also consider Load balancing and durability against considerable quantities of traffic. Your company’s intellectual property and also the personally identifiable information (PII) of your users at risk of theft. Implementing a CSP. This implementation decreases the chances of an A more subtle attack is one that Might Not Be immediately Utilizing network segmentation and segregation. Segmentation and · Performing routine backups and testing disaster recovery situations. Unexpected code is delivered to the end user. Website owners should All user inputs. User input has particular characters and null characters, either at the guaranteed. To Make Sure that communications between the website and the User are encrypted, always apply the use of HTTPS and also HSTS whenever Corporate network, other assets might be available to the consumer, such as user credentials, PIIand administrative advice, and technical vulnerabilities. Additional by minding the website’s platform, an attacker may re install its infrastructure as a platform from which to launch attacks against other systems. How do I improve my protection against strikes?

Importance of cheapest email hosting-2020

11 Best Free Web Hosting Services of 2020 Looking for a free web hosting service? Then you’re in the right place. In this article, colocation hosting show you some of the best free web hosting services on the market. Before we dive in and start comparing the free web hosting services, let’s examine whether free hosting is the right solution for your site, colocation uk how it would affect your online presence, and what’s the catch with it. Choosing a Free Web Hosting Service People usually choose a free web hosting service when they’re on a tight budget and don’t want to spend a dime on web hosting. But a free hosting can come handy for students who are tight on budget. Free web hosting for students help them work on their startups and projects which are only meant for learning and grading. Not to mention, if something’s free, then there’s always a catch and free web hosting is no different. Before you choose a free web hosting service, let’s debunk one of the most persistent myths about website hosting: web hosting is expensive. Is Hosting a Website Really Expensive? A lot of people choose a free web hosting service because they think hosting a website is expensive and won’t fit into their budget. The reality is, when you’re starting out, you can choose a reliable cheap hosting service for as low as $2 to $4 per month. Some of these cheap hosting companies even offer a free domain name, SSL, and a nearly 100% uptime guarantee. That means, for just $2, cheapest email hosting you’ll get everything you need to build your site from the ground up. These cheap hosting services even ensure that your website will always remain online thanks to their excellent uptime guarantees. In a nutshell, even if you’re under a tight budget, you can find a web hosting plan that’s affordable and meets your requirements. Free Web Hosting – What’s the Catch? Hosting a website certainly costs money. So how can a web hosting company offer their services for free without going bankrupt? Are there any downsides to choosing a free web hosting service? Ads: To make money, web hosting companies often show their ads on your website’s footer. To remove the ads, you’ll have to upgrade to a paid plan. Limit your traffic: A free web hosting service often limits your traffic, which holds you back from growing your business. Lock in: A free web hosting company often makes it really hard to move your website to other platforms. Honestly, you’d be better off building your site using a cheap hosting service when you’re just starting out. We believe that using a free web hosting service is a bad idea unless you’re creating a test site. That said, let’s take a look at some of the best almost-free website hosting companies first. Then, if you’re still not convinced, we’ll show you the best free web hosting companies.1. Bluehost Bluehost is one of the best cheap hosting services available on the market. It’s also officially recommended by WordPress.org. With every new web hosting account, you’ll get a free domain name, free SSL, and an over 60% discount on web hosting. Currently, Bluehost hosts over 2 million websites worldwide. You’d not like to miss these comparisons between: We’ve negotiated an exclusive deal with Bluehost for IsItWP users, so you’d only have to pay $2.75 per month. 2. SiteGround If you want a web hosting service that doesn’t compromise on speed of your site, then SiteGround could be your best choice. SiteGround is a feature-packed web hosting service that gives you everything you need to get your site up and running. Just like Bluehost, they’re also an officially recommended web hosting provider by WordPress.org. Don’t miss these comparisons between, SiteGround vs Liquid Web SiteGround offers a cheap web hosting plan for as low as $3.95 per month. 3. HostGator HostGator powers over 2 million domain names all around the globe. You can try out their service risk-free for 45 days and, if you’re not fully satisfied, you can get a complete refund. HostGator’s award-winning support team is available 24/7 via live chat, telephone, or email. Check out these comparisons between: 4. DreamHost DreamHost is a leading web hosting service that has grown and maintained a successful hosting business for the last 18 years. With their cheap hosting plans, you’ll get a cheap ssl certificate ukv free domain name, free SSL encryption with Let’s Encrypt, 1-click WordPress installer, and more. With DreamHost, you can save up to 47% on WordPress hosting. Their hosting plans start at $2.59 per month. 5. iPage iPage is probably the cheapest (yet still reliable) hosting service in the shared hosting vertical. iPage gives you everything you need to build your site from scratch, such as a website builder with thousands of free templates, a free domain name, free SSL certificate, and $200 worth of ad credits. 6. Wix Wix is a free website builder that allows you to quickly start a site from the ground up. The best thing about Wix is that you don’t have to learn any of the technicalities of hosting your website. You can simply sign up for Wix and start building the site you’ve always wanted with its drag and drop builder. The free plan doesn’t allow you to use a custom domain name such as IsItWP.com or WPBeginner.com. This is what your site URL will look like: https://username.wixsite.com/sitename 7. Weebly Weebly is another popular free website builder, which is now a part of the Square product suite. Whether you want to build a site or an online store, Weebly makes it super easy to kick it off in minutes. The free Weebly plan enables you to build a basic website. Your free site will be hosted on a weebly.com subdomain. Your site will also have a Weebly link in the footer. For advanced features like a custom domain setup, eCommerce store, site stats, and email marketing, you…

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Top advantages of cheap ssl certificate uk

Cryptography In A Nutshell Confidentiality, integrity and authentication aren’t HTTPS-specific: They’re the core concepts of cryptography. Let’s look a little more closely at them. CONFIDENTIALITY Confidentiality is privacy — that is, cheap email hosting protects information from being read by an unauthorized third party. The process usually involves turning a readable (i.e. audible and visible) form of the information, called plaintext, into a scrambled, unreadable version, called ciphertext. This process is called encryption. The reverse process — turning the unreadable ciphertext back into readable plaintext — is called decryption. There are many methods — cipher functions (or algorithms) — to encrypt and decrypt information. In order for two parties to be able to communicate, they should agree on two things: which algorithm (cipher function) they will use in their communication; which parameters, password or rules (i.e. secret) will be used with the method selected. There are two main types of encryption methods: symmetric. Both parties share a common secret key. asymmetric. One of the parties has a pair of a secret and a public key, the foundation of public key infrastructure (PKI). The symmetric class of methods relies on both parties having a shared secret, which best email hosting sender uses to encrypt the information, which in turn the receiver decrypts using the same method and key (see the figure below). The problem with these methods is how both parties will negotiate (i.e. exchange) the secret without physically meeting each other — they need to have a secure communication channel of some sort. Symmetric encryption Symmetric encryption (View large version) The asymmetric methods come to solve this kind of problem — they are based on the notion of public and private keys. The plaintext is encrypted using one of the keys and can only be decrypted using the other complementary key. So, how does it work? Let’s assume we have two parties who are willing to communicate with each other securely — Alice and Bob (these are always the names of the fictional characters in every tutorial, security manual and the like, so we’ll honor the tradition here as well). Both of them have a pair of keys: a private key and a public one. Private keys are known only to their respective owner; public keys are available to anyone. If Alice wants to send a message to Bob, cheap ssl certificate uk would obtain his public key, encrypt the plaintext and send him the ciphertext. He would then use his own private key to decrypt it. If Bob would like to send a reply to Alice, he would obtain her public key, encrypt the plaintext and send her the ciphertext. She would then use her own private key to decrypt it. Asymmetric encryption Asymmetric encryption (View large version) When do we use symmetric and when do we use asymmetric encryption? Asymmetric encryption is used to exchange the secret between the client and the server. In real life, we usually do not need two-way asymmetric communication — it is sufficient if one of the parties (we’ll just call it a server, for the sake of simplicity) has the set of keys, so it can receive an encrypted message. It really protects the security of information in only one direction — from the client to the server, because the information encrypted with the public key can only be decrypted using the private key; hence, only the server can decrypt it. The other direction is not protected — information encrypted with the server’s private key can be decrypted with its public key by anyone. The other party (we’ll similarly call it a client) begins the communication by encrypting a randomly generated session secret with the server’s public key, then sends the ciphertext back to the server, which, in turn, cheapest email hosting decrypts it using its own private key, now having the secret. Symmetric encryption is then used to protect the actual data in transit, since it’s much faster than asymmetric encryption. The two parties (the client and the server), with the previously exchanged secret, are the only ones able to encrypt and decrypt the information. That’s why the first asymmetric part of the handshake is also known (and referred to) as key exchange and why the actual encrypted communication uses algorithms known (and referred to) as cipher methods. INTEGRITY Another concern, solved with HTTPS, is data integrity: (1) whether the entire information arrived successfully, and (2) whether it was modified by someone in transit. In order to ensure the information is transmitted successfully, message digest algorithms are used. Computing message authentication codes (MACs) for each message exchanged are a cryptographic hashing process. For example, obtaining a MAC (sometimes called a tag) uses a method that ensures that it is practically impossible (the term commonly used is infeasible) to: change the message without affecting the tag, generate the same tag from two different messages, reverse the process and obtain the original message from the tag. AUTHENTICATION What about authentication? The problem with the real-life application of the public key infrastructure is that both parties have no way of knowing who the other party really is — they are physically separate. In order to prove the identity of the other party, a mutually trusted third party — a certificate authority (CA) — is involved. A CA issues a certificate, colocation hosting stating that the domain name example.com (a unique identifier), is associated with the public key XXX. In some cases (with EV and OV certificates — see below), the CA will also check that a particular company controls that domain. This information is guaranteed by (i.e. certified by) the certificate authority X, and this guarantee is valid no earlier than (i.e. begins on) date Y and no later than (i.e. expires on) date Z. All of this information goes into a single document, called an HTTPS certificate. To present an easily understandable analogy, it is like a country government (a third party trusted by all) issuing an ID or a passport (a certificate)…

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Importance of cheap ssl certificate uk-2020

Types Of HTTPS Certificates There are several types of HTTPS certificates. They can be categorized according to the following criteria. 1. IDENTITY VALIDATION Domain validated (DV) The most common type of certificate, a cheap email hosting certificate verifies that the domain matches a particular public key. The browser establishes a secure connection with the server and displays the closed padlock sign. Clicking the sign will show “This website does not supply ownership information.” There are no special requirements other than having a domain — a DV certificate simply ensures that this is the correct public key for that domain. The browser does not show a legal entity. DV certificates are often cheap (10 USD per year) or free — see the sections on Let’s Encrypt and Cloudflare below. Extended validation (EV) EV best email hosting certificates verify the legal organization behind a website. This is the most trustworthy type of certificate, which is obtained after a CA checks the legal entity that controls the domain. The legal entity is checked with a combination of: control of the domain (such as a DV certificate); government business records, to make sure the company is registered and active; independent business directories, such as Dunn and Bradstreet, Salesforce’s connect.data.com, Yellow Pages, etc.; a verification phone call; inspection of all domain names in the certificate (wildcards are explicitly forbidden for EV certificates).As well as the closed padlock sign, EV HTTPS certificates display the name of the validated legal entity — typically a cheap ssl certificate uk registered company — before the URL. Some devices, such as iOS Safari, will only show the validated legal entity, ignoring the URL completely. Clicking the sign will show details about the organization, such as the name and street address. The cost is between 150 and 300 USD per year. Organization validated (OV) Like EV, best dedicated server hosting uk certificates verify the legal organization behind a website. However, unlike EV, OV HTTPS certificates do not display the verified legal name in the UI. As a result, OV certificates are less popular, because they have high validation requirements, without the benefits of these being shown to users. Prices are in the 40 to 100 USD per year range. 2. NUMBER OF DOMAINS COVERED Once upon a time, HTTPS certificates generally contained a single domain in the CN field. Later, the “subject alternative name” (SAN) field was added to allow additional domains to be covered by a single certificate. These days, all HTTPS certificates are created equal: Even a single-domain certificate will have a SAN for that single domain (and a second SAN for the www version of that domain). However, many certificate vendors still sell single- and multi-domain HTTPS certificates for historical reasons. Single domain This is the most common type of certificate, valid for the domain names example.com and www.example.com. Multiple domains (UCC/SAN) This type of certificate, also known as Unified Communications Certificate (UCC) or Subject Alternative Names (SAN) certificate, can cover a list of domains (up to a certain limit). It is not limited to a single domain — you can mix different domains and subdomains. The price usually includes a set number of domains (three to five), with the option to include more (up to the limit) for an additional fee. Using it with related websites is advised, because the client inspecting the certificate of any of the websites will see the main domain, as well as all additional ones. Wildcard This type of certificate covers the main domain as well as an unlimited number of subdomains (*.example.com) — for example, example.com, www.example.com, mail.example.com, ftp.example.com, etc. The limitation is that it covers only subdomains of the main domain. The variety of HTTPS certificates available is summarized in the table below: Certificate type Domain validated (DV) Organization validated (OV) Extended validation (EV) HTTPS HTTPS Verified legal owner HTTPS Verified legal owner Owner info displayed in browser Single domain example.com, www.example.com Multiple domains example.com, www.example.com, mail.example.com, example.net, example.org, etc. predefined list, up to a certain limit (usually 100) Wildcard *.example.com matches any subdomain N/A — all names must be included explicitly in the certificate and inspected by the CA. The Configuration To recap, four components of HTTPS require encryption: The initial key exchange This uses asymmetric (private and public key) algorithms. The identity certification (the HTTPS certificate, issued by a certification authority) This uses asymmetric (private and public key) algorithms. The actual message encryption This uses symmetric (pre-shared secret) algorithms. The message digesting This uses cryptographic hashing algorithms. Each of these components has a set of used algorithms (some of them deprecated already) that use different key sizes. Part of the handshake involves the client and the server agreeing on which combination of methods they will use — select one out of about a dozen public key (key exchange) algorithms, one out of about a personal email hosting dozen symmetric key (cipher) algorithms and one out of three (two deprecated) message-digesting (hashing) algorithms, which gives us hundreds of combinations. For example, the setting ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 means that the key will be exchanged using the Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral (ECDHE) key exchange algorithm; the CA signed the certificate using the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) algorithm; the symmetric message encryption will use the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cipher, with a 256-bit key and GCM mode of operation; and message integrity will be verified using the SHA secure hashing algorithm, using 384-bit digests. (A comprehensive list of algorithm combinations is available. So, there are some configuration choices to be made. Deciding the cipher suites to use is a balance between compatibility and security: Compatibility with older browsers needs the server to support older cipher suites. However, many older cipher suites are no longer considered secure. OpenSSL lists the supported combinations (see above) in order of cryptographic strength, with the most secure at the top and the weakest at the bottom. It is designed in this way because, during the initial handshake between the client and the server, the combination to be used is negotiated until…

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Top advantages of cheap ssl certificate uk

Types Of HTTPS Certificates There are several types of HTTPS certificates. They can be categorized according to the following criteria. 1. IDENTITY VALIDATION Domain validated (DV) The most common type of certificate, a cheap email hosting certificate verifies that the domain matches a particular public key. The browser establishes a secure connection with the server and displays the closed padlock sign. Clicking the sign will show “This website does not supply ownership information.” There are no special requirements other than having a domain — a DV certificate simply ensures that this is the correct public key for that domain. The browser does not show a legal entity. DV certificates are often cheap (10 USD per year) or free — see the sections on Let’s Encrypt and Cloudflare below. Extended validation (EV) EV best email hosting verify the legal organization behind a website. This is the most trustworthy type of certificate, which is obtained after a CA checks the legal entity that controls the domain. The legal entity is checked with a combination of: control of the domain (such as a DV certificate); government business records, to make sure the company is registered and active; independent business directories, such as Dunn and Bradstreet, Salesforce’s connect.data.com, Yellow Pages, etc.; a verification phone call; inspection of all cheap ssl certificate uk domain names in the certificate (wildcards are explicitly forbidden for EV certificates).As well as the closed padlock sign, EV HTTPS certificates display the name of the validated legal entity — typically a registered company — before the URL. Some devices, such as iOS Safari, will only show the validated legal entity, ignoring the URL completely. Clicking the sign will show details about the organization, such as the name and street address. The cost is between 150 and 300 USD per year. Organization validated (OV) Like EV, best dedicated server hosting uk certificates verify the legal organization behind a website. However, unlike EV, OV HTTPS certificates do not display the verified legal name in the UI. As a result, OV certificates are less popular, because they have high validation requirements, without the benefits of these being shown to users. Prices are in the 40 to 100 USD per year range. 2. NUMBER OF DOMAINS COVERED Once upon a time, HTTPS certificates generally contained a single domain in the CN field. Later, the “subject alternative name” (SAN) field was added to allow additional domains to be covered by a single certificate. These days, all HTTPS certificates are created equal: Even a single-domain certificate will have a SAN for that single domain (and a second SAN for the www version of that domain). However, many certificate vendors still sell single- and multi-domain HTTPS certificates for historical reasons. Single domain This is the most common type of certificate, valid for the domain names example.com and www.example.com. Multiple domains (UCC/SAN) This type of certificate, also known as Unified Communications Certificate (UCC) or Subject Alternative Names (SAN) certificate, can cover a list of domains (up to a certain limit). It is not limited to a single domain — you can mix different domains and subdomains. The price usually includes a set number of domains (three to five), with the option to include more (up to the limit) for an additional fee. Using it with related websites is advised, because the client inspecting the certificate of any of the websites will see the main domain, as well as all additional ones. Wildcard This type of certificate covers the main domain as well as an unlimited number of subdomains (*.example.com) — for example, example.com, www.example.com, mail.example.com, ftp.example.com, etc. The limitation is that it covers only subdomains of the main domain. The variety of HTTPS certificates available is summarized in the table below: Certificate type Domain validated (DV) Organization validated (OV) Extended validation (EV) HTTPS HTTPS Verified legal owner HTTPS Verified legal owner Owner info displayed in browser Single domain example.com, www.example.com Multiple domains example.com, www.example.com, mail.example.com, example.net, example.org, etc. predefined list, up to a certain limit (usually 100) Wildcard *.example.com matches any subdomain N/A — all names must be included explicitly in the certificate and inspected by the CA. The Configuration To recap, four components of HTTPS require encryption: The initial key exchange This uses asymmetric (private and public key) algorithms. The identity certification (the HTTPS certificate, issued by a certification authority) This uses asymmetric (private and public key) algorithms. The actual message encryption This uses symmetric (pre-shared secret) algorithms. The message digesting This uses cryptographic hashing algorithms. Each of these components has a set of used algorithms (some of them deprecated already) that use different key sizes. Part of the handshake involves the client and the server agreeing on which combination of methods they will use — select one out of about a dozen public key (key exchange) algorithms, one out of about a dozen symmetric key (cipher) algorithms and one out of three (two deprecated) message-digesting (hashing) algorithms, which gives us hundreds of combinations. For example, the setting ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 means that the key will be exchanged using the Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral (ECDHE) key exchange algorithm; the CA signed the certificate using the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) algorithm; the symmetric message encryption will use the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cipher, with a 256-bit key and GCM mode of operation; and message integrity will be verified using the SHA secure hashing algorithm, using 384-bit digests. (A comprehensive list of algorithm combinations is available. So, there are some personal email hosting configuration choices to be made. Deciding the cipher suites to use is a balance between compatibility and security: Compatibility with older browsers needs the server to support older cipher suites. However, many older cipher suites are no longer considered secure. OpenSSL lists the supported combinations (see above) in order of cryptographic strength, with the most secure at the top and the weakest at the bottom. It is designed in this way because, during the initial handshake between the client and the server, the combination to be used is negotiated until a…

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